case studies

Trust in Balance
No matter where you turn these days, you'll find watershaping experts preaching the gospel of balanced hydraulics.  In class after class, text after text, they all say that if you do exactly the same thing on one side of a tee as you do on the other, you will get the same flow on both side of that tee. If, for example, two main drains are connected to a single tee with pipes of the same length and diameter and the same fittings, those drains will both draw equal amounts of
Burying Masterpieces
When I listen to people as they stare at a fountain, I often hear them say, "How wonderful!"  In witnessing that praise, however, I know for a fact that what they find appealing is the gracefulness of a sculpture or the beauty of the stone or tile finishes or the way the water flows - what I refer to as the fountain's "façade."   In many cases, what's behind that façade can be pretty mundane:  maybe a small pump, some simple plumbing, a cascade head or sconce and little more.  In other cases, however, what's going on behind the surface is